4.3. Colloid Output

4.3.1. Colloid file I/O

If colloids are present, information can be saved at the required interval for analysis, and for the purposes of restarting the calculation.

Two input key/value pairs of interest are:

colloid_io_freq          1000     # every 1000 time steps
colloid_io_format        BINARY   # ASCII or BINARY (default is BINARY)

If necessary, different input and output formats may be specified

4.3.2. Colloid file format

The form of the file is as follows.

<integer>      # 4-byte integer number of colloids in file: 0 or more

The information for each colloid follows the same pattern (whether ASCII or binary). Not all the information is relevant in all cases; however, the format is the same in all cases.

int index;            /* Unique global index for colloid */
int rebuild;          /* Rebuild flag */
int nbonds;           /* Number of bonds e.g. fene (to NBOND_MAX) */
int nangles;          /* Number of angles, e.g., fene (1 at the moment) */

int isfixedr;         /* Set to 1 for no position update */
int isfixedv;         /* Set to 1 for no velocity update */
int isfixedw;         /* Set to 1 for no angular velocity update */
int isfixeds;         /* Set to zero for no s, m update */

int type;             /* Particle type NO LONGER USED; see "shape" etc */
int bond[2]        ;  /* Bonded neighbours ids (index) */

int rng;              /* Random number state */

int isfixedrxyz[3];   /* Position update in specific coordinate directions */
int isfixedvxyz[3];   /* Velocity update in specific coordinate directions */

int inter_type;       /* Interaction type of a particle */

int ioversion;        /* For internal use */
int bc;               /* Broadly, boundary condition (bbl, subgrid) */
int shape;            /* Particle shape (2d disk, sphere, ellipsoid) */
int active;           /* Particle is active */
int magnetic;         /* Particle is magnetic */
int attr;             /* Additional attributes bitmask */

int intpad[7];        /* Unused */

double a0;            /* Input radius (lattice units) */
double ah;            /* Hydrodynamic radius (from calibration) */
double r[3];          /* Position */
double v[3];          /* Velocity */
double w[3];          /* Angular velocity omega */
double s[3];          /* Magnetic dipole, or spin */
double m[3];          /* Current direction of motion vector (squirmer) */
double b1;            /* squirmer active parameter b1 */
double b2;            /* squirmer active parameter b2 */
double c;             /* Wetting free energy parameter C */
double h;             /* Wetting free energy parameter H */
double dr[3];         /* r update (pending refactor of move/build process) */
double deltaphi;      /* order parameter bbl net; required to restart */

double q0;            /* magnitude charge 0 */
double q1;            /* magnitude charge 1 */
double epsilon;       /* permittivity */

double deltaq0;       /* surplus/deficit of charge 0 at change of shape */
double deltaq1;       /* surplus/deficit of charge 1 at change of shape */
double sa;            /* surface area (finite difference) */
double saf;           /* surface area to fluid (finite difference grid) */

double al;            /* Offset parameter used for subgrid particles */

                      /* Ellipsoids */
double elabc[3];      /* Semi principal axes a,b,c */
double quat[4];       /* Quaternion describing current orientation */
double quatold[4];    /* Quaternion at previous time step */

double dpad[4];       /* Unused */

Note that the bare colloid output files may be converted to different format (csv) with a subset of useful information if required. See util/extract_colloid.c. Formats for versions before 0.21.0

Version 0.21.0 introduced ellipsoids, which required the replacement of the type entry in the colloid structure by separate entries to describe different properties.

However, it should still be possible to read older colloid state files as the old type entry can be translated to the new structure in most cases. This is done automatically when the file is read at run time. Ellipsoids must follow the new structure.

4.3.3. Colloid parallel output

For very large systems, it may be necessary to use the parallel output facility to prevent performance and/or memory bottlenecks. The parallel output writes a number of different files (all of the format discussed above), based on a decomposition of the domain.

colloid_io_grid      2_2_2    # default is 1_1_1

This I/O grid will produce 8 files based on a Cartesian decomposition of the system. Each file may contain different numbers of colloids depending on the current distribution in space.

The extract_colloid utility may be used to reconstitute such a set into a single file if required.

Such a set of files may be used as a restart providing the I/O is the same.

Independently of any choice of I/O grid, colloid input (e.g., initial conditions) may be read from a single file via either

colloid_io_format_input     ASCII_SERIAL
colloid_io_format_input     BINARY_SERIAL